Explain some caveats with dump -m in the man page.
[dump.git] / dump / dump.8.in
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1.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
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1753ce67 29.\" $Id: dump.8.in,v 1.58 2005/06/01 13:44:35 stelian Exp $
1227625a 30.\"
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31.TH DUMP 8 "version __VERSION__ of __DATE__" BSD "System management commands"
32.SH NAME
33dump \- ext2/3 filesystem backup
34.SH SYNOPSIS
35.B dump
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36[\fB\-\fIlevel#\fR]
37[\fB\-ackMnqSuv]
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38[\fB\-A \fIfile\fR]
39[\fB\-B \fIrecords\fR]
40[\fB\-b \fIblocksize\fR]
41[\fB\-d \fIdensity\fR]
c92d83ae 42[\fB\-D \fIfile\fR]
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43[\fB\-e \fIinode numbers\fR]
44[\fB\-E \fIfile\fR]
45[\fB\-f \fIfile\fR]
46[\fB\-F \fIscript\fR]
47[\fB\-h \fIlevel\fR]
48[\fB\-I \fInr errors\fR]
49[\fB\-j\fIcompression level\fR]
50[\fB\-L \fIlabel\fR]
51[\fB\-Q \fIfile\fR]
52[\fB\-s \fIfeet\fR]
53[\fB\-T \fIdate\fR]
206f768c 54[\fB\-y\fR]
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55[\fB\-z\fIcompression level\fR]
56.I files-to-dump
57.PP
58.B dump
59[\fB\-W \fR| \fB\-w\fR]
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60.SH DESCRIPTION
61.B Dump
62examines files on an ext2/3 filesystem and determines which files need to be
63backed up. These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage
64medium for safe keeping (see the
65.B \-f
66option below for doing remote backups). A dump that is larger than the output
67medium is broken into multiple volumes. On most media the size is determined by
68writing until an end-of-media indication is returned.
69.PP
70On media that cannot reliably return an end-of-media indication (such as some
71cartridge tape drives), each volume is of a fixed size; the actual size is
72determined by specifying cartridge media, or via the tape size, density and/or
73block count options below. By default, the same output file name is used for
74each volume after prompting the operator to change media.
75.PP
76.I files-to-dump
77is either a mountpoint of a filesystem or a list of files and directories to be
78backed up as a subset of a filesystem. In the former case, either the path to a
79mounted filesystem or the device of an unmounted filesystem can be used. In the
80latter case, certain restrictions are placed on the backup:
81.B \-u
a94ecd11 82is not allowed, the only dump level that is supported is
153f9a83 83.B 0
a94ecd11 84and all the files and directories must reside on the same filesystem.
153f9a83 85.SH OPTIONS
1227625a 86The following options are supported by
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87.B dump:
88.TP
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89.BI \-level#
90The dump level (any integer). A level 0, full backup, guarantees the
91entire file system is copied (but see also the
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92.B \-h
93option below). A level number above 0, incremental backup, tells
94.B dump
ddd2ef55 95to
153f9a83 96copy all files new or modified since the last dump of a lower level. The
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97default level is 9. Historically only levels 0 to 9 were usable in
98dump, this version is able to understand any integer as a dump level.
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99.TP
100.BI \-a
101\*(lqauto-size\*(rq. Bypass all tape length calculations, and write until an
102end-of-media indication is returned. This works best for most modern tape
103drives, and is the default. Use of this option is particularly recommended when
104appending to an existing tape, or using a tape drive with hardware compression
4f4eee3d 105(where you can never be sure about the compression ratio).
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106.TP
107.BI \-A " archive_file"
108Archive a dump table-of-contents in the specified
109.I archive_file
e51470bf 110to be used by
153f9a83 111.BR restore (8)
e51470bf 112to determine whether a file is in the dump file that is being restored.
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113.TP
114.BI \-b " blocksize"
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115The number of kilobytes per dump record. The default blocksize is 10,
116unless the
117.B \-d
118option has been used to specify a tape density of 6250BPI or more,
119in which case the default blocksize is 32. Th maximal value is 1024.
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120Note however that, since the IO system slices all requests into chunks
121of
153f9a83 122.B MAXBSIZE
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123(which can be as low as 64kB), you can experience problems with
124.BR dump (8)
125and
126.BR restore (8)
127when using a higher value, depending on your kernel and/or libC versions.
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128.TP
129.BI \-B " records"
27305a35 130The number of 1 kB blocks per volume. Not normally required, as
153f9a83 131.B dump
27305a35 132can detect end-of-media. When the specified size is reached,
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133.B dump
134waits for you to change the volume. This option overrides the calculation of
135tape size based on length and density. If compression is on this limits the
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136size of the compressed output per volume. Multiple values may be given
137as a single argument separated by commas. Each value will be used for one
138dump volume in the order listed; if
139.B dump
140creates more volumes than the
141number of values given, the last value will be used for the remaining
142volumes. This is useful for filling up already partially filled media
143(and then continuing with full size volumes on empty media) or mixing media
144of different sizes.
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145.TP
146.BI \-c
147Change the defaults for use with a cartridge tape drive, with a density of 8000
148bpi, and a length of 1700 feet. Specifying a cartridge drive overrides the
e51470bf 149end-of-media detection.
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150.TP
151.BI \-d " density"
152Set tape density to
153.IR density .
154The default is 1600BPI. Specifying a tape density overrides the end-of-media
155detection.
156.TP
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157.BI \-D " file"
158Set the path name of the file storing the information about the previous
159full and incremental dumps. The default location is
160.IR __DUMPDATES__ .
161.TP
153f9a83 162.BI \-e " inodes"
20c345aa 163Exclude
153f9a83 164.I inodes
6d732772 165from the dump. The
153f9a83 166.I inodes
6d732772 167parameter is a comma separated list of inode numbers (you can use
153f9a83 168.BR stat (1)
20c345aa 169to find the inode number for a file or directory).
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170.TP
171.BI \-E " file"
6d732772 172Read list of inodes to be excluded from the dump from the text file
153f9a83 173.IR file .
6d732772 174The file
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175.I file
176should be an ordinary file containing inode numbers separated by newlines.
177.TP
178.BI \-f " file"
1227625a 179Write the backup to
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180.IR file ;
181.I file
182may be a special device file like
183.I /dev/st0
1227625a 184(a tape drive),
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185.I /dev/rsd1c
186(a floppy disk drive), an ordinary file, or
187.I \-
188(the standard output). Multiple file names may be given as a single argument
189separated by commas. Each file will be used for one dump volume in the order
190listed; if the dump requires more volumes than the number of names given,
191the last file name will used for all remaining volumes after prompting for
192media changes. If the name of the file is of the form
193.I host:file
1227625a 194or
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195.I user@host:file
196.B dump
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197writes to the named file on the remote host (which should already
198exist, dump doesn't create a new remote file) using
153f9a83 199.BR rmt (8).
b45f51d6 200The default path name of the remote
153f9a83 201.BR rmt (8)
b45f51d6 202program is
153f9a83 203.IR /etc/rmt ;
b45f51d6 204this can be overridden by the environment variable
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205.BR RMT .
206.TP
207.BI \-F " script"
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208Run script at the end of each tape (except for the last one).
209The device name and the current volume number are passed on the
210command line. The script must return 0 if
153f9a83 211.B dump
ae81b200 212should continue without asking the user to change the tape, 1 if
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213.B dump
214should continue but ask the user to change the tape. Any other exit code will
215cause
216.B dump
217to abort. For security reasons,
218.B dump
219reverts back to the real user ID and the real group ID before running the
220script.
221.TP
222.BI \-h " level"
e51470bf 223Honor the user
153f9a83 224.B nodump
e51470bf 225flag
153f9a83 226.B UF_NODUMP
e51470bf 227only for dumps at or above the given
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228.IR level .
229The default honor level is 1, so that incremental backups omit such files but
230full backups retain them.
231.TP
232.BI \-I " nr errors"
b82d31dc 233By default,
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234.B dump
235will ignore the first 32 read errors on the file system before asking for
236operator intervention. You can change this using this flag to any value. This
237is useful when running
238.B dump
239on an active filesystem where read errors simply indicate an inconsistency
240between the mapping and dumping passes.
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241.IP
242A value of 0 means that all read errors will be ignored.
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243.TP
244.BI \-j "compression level"
245Compress every block to be written on the tape using bzlib library. This option
246will work only when dumping to a file or pipe or, when dumping to a tape drive,
247if the tape drive is capable of writing variable length blocks. You will need
248at least the 0.4b24 version of
249.B restore
250in order to extract compressed tapes. Tapes written using compression will not
251be compatible with the BSD tape format. The (optional) parameter specifies the
252compression level bzlib will use. The default compression level is 2. If the
253optional parameter is specified, there should be no white space between the
254option letter and the parameter.
255.TP
256.BI \-k
257Use Kerberos authentication to talk to remote tape servers. (Only available if
258this option was enabled when
259.B dump
b45f51d6 260was compiled.)
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261.TP
262.BI \-L " label"
b45f51d6 263The user-supplied text string
153f9a83 264.I label
b45f51d6 265is placed into the dump header, where tools like
153f9a83 266.BR restore (8)
b45f51d6 267and
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268.BR file (8)
269can access it. Note that this label is limited to be at most
270.B LBLSIZE
271(currently 16) characters, which must include the terminating \e0.
272.TP
273.BI \-m
0cedbda5 274If this flag is specified,
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275.B dump
276will optimise the output for inodes having been changed but not modified since
277the last dump ('changed' and 'modified' have the meaning defined in
278.BR stat (2)
279). For those inodes,
280.B dump
281will save only the metadata, instead of saving the entire inode contents.
282Inodes which are either directories or have been modified since the last dump
283are saved in a regular way. Uses of this flag must be consistent, meaning that
284either every dump in an incremental dump set have the flag, or no one has it.
285.IP
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286If you use this option, be aware that many programs that unpack
287files from archives (e.g. tar, rpm, unzip, dpkg) may set files'
288mtimes to dates in the past. Files installed in this way may not be
289dumped correctly using "dump -m" if the modified mtime is earlier
290than the previous level dump.
291.IP
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292Tapes written using such 'metadata only' inodes will not be compatible with the
293BSD tape format or older versions of
294.B restore.
295.TP
296.BI \-M
dc7cb1e2 297Enable the multi-volume feature. The name specified with
153f9a83 298.B f
dc7cb1e2 299is treated as a prefix and
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300.B dump
301writes in sequence to
302.I <prefix>001, <prefix>002
303etc. This can be useful when dumping to files on an ext2 partition, in order to
304bypass the 2GB file size limitation.
305.TP
306.BI \-n
1227625a 307Whenever
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308.B dump
309requires operator attention, notify all operators in the group
310.B operator
1227625a 311by means similar to a
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312.BR wall (1).
313.TP
314.BI \-q
e084ba00 315Make
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316.B dump
317abort immediately whenever operator attention is required, without prompting in
318case of write errors, tape changes etc.
319.TP
320.BI \-Q " file"
321Enable the Quick File Access support. Tape positions for each inode are stored
322into the file
323.I file
324which is used by
325.B restore
326(if called with parameter
327.B \-Q
328and the filename) to directly position the tape at the file
329.B restore
330is currently working on. This saves hours when restoring single files from
331large backups, saves the tapes and the drive's head.
332.IP
333It is recommended to set up the st driver to return logical tape positions
334rather than physical before calling
335.B dump/restore
336with parameter
337.BR \-Q .
338Since not all tape devices support physical tape positions those tape devices
339return an error during
340.B dump/restore
341when the st driver is set to the default physical setting. Please see the
342.BR st (4)
343man page, option
344.B MTSETDRVBUFFER
345, or the
346.BR mt (1)
347man page, on how to set the driver to return logical tape positions.
348.IP
349Before calling
350.B restore
351with parameter
352.BR \-Q ,
353always make sure the st driver is set to return the same type of tape position
354used during the call to
355.BR dump .
356Otherwise
357.B restore
358may be confused.
359.IP
360This option can be used when dumping to local tapes (see above) or to local
361files.
362.TP
363.BI \-s " feet"
364Attempt to calculate the amount of tape needed at a particular density. If this
365amount is exceeded,
366.B dump
367prompts for a new tape. It is recommended to be a bit conservative on this
368option. The default tape length is 2300 feet. Specifying the tape size
4f4eee3d 369overrides end-of-media detection.
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370.TP
371.BI \-S
372Size estimate. Determine the amount of space that is needed to perform the dump
373without actually doing it, and display the estimated number of bytes it will
374take. This is useful with incremental dumps to determine how many volumes of
375media will be needed.
376.TP
377.BI \-T " date"
378Use the specified date as the starting time for the dump instead of the time
379determined from looking in
380.I __DUMPDATES__ .
ddd2ef55 381The format of
153f9a83 382.I date
ddd2ef55 383is the same as that of
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384.BR ctime (3)
385followed by an rfc822 timezone specification: either a plus or minus sign
386followed by two digits for the number of hours and two digits for the minutes.
387For example, -0800 for eight hours west of Greenwich or +0230 for two hours
388and a half east of Greenwich. This timezone offset takes into account
389daylight savings time (if applicable to the timezone): UTC offsets
390when daylight savings time is in effect will be different than offsets
391when daylight savings time is not in effect. For backward
392compatibility, if no timezone is specified, a local time is assumed.
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393This option is useful for automated dump scripts that wish to dump over a
394specific period of time. The
395.B \-T
1227625a 396option is mutually exclusive from the
153f9a83 397.B \-u
1227625a 398option.
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399.TP
400.BI \-u
1227625a 401Update the file
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402.I __DUMPDATES__
403after a successful dump. The format of
404.I __DUMPDATES__
405is readable by people, consisting of one free format record per line:
406filesystem name, increment level and
407.BR ctime (3)
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408format dump date followed by a rfc822 timezone specification (see the
409.B \-u
410option for details). If no timezone offset is specified, times are interpreted
411as local. Whenever the file is written, all dates in the file are converted
412to the local time zone, without changing the UTC times. There
413may be only one entry per filesystem at each level. The file
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414.I __DUMPDATES__
415may be edited to change any of the fields, if necessary.
416.TP
417.BI \-v
fceb4f25 418The
153f9a83 419.B \-v
fceb4f25 420(verbose) makes
153f9a83 421.B dump
fceb4f25 422to print extra information which could be helpful in debug sessions.
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423.TP
424.BI \-W
425.B Dump
426tells the operator what file systems need to be dumped. This information is
427gleaned from the files
428.I __DUMPDATES__
1227625a 429and
153f9a83 430.IR /etc/fstab .
1227625a 431The
153f9a83 432.B \-W
1227625a 433option causes
153f9a83 434.B dump
51b01afe 435to print out, for all file systems in
153f9a83 436.I __DUMPDATES__ ,
51b01afe 437and regognized file systems in
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438.I /etc/mtab
439and
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440.IR /etc/fstab .
441the most recent dump date and level, and highlights those that should be
442dumped. If the
443.B \-W
1227625a 444option is set, all other options are ignored, and
153f9a83 445.B dump
1227625a 446exits immediately.
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447.TP
448.BI \-w
ddd2ef55 449Is like
153f9a83 450.BR \-W ,
51b01afe 451but prints only recognized filesystems in
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452.I /etc/mtab
453and
153f9a83 454.I /etc/fstab
51b01afe 455which need to be dumped.
153f9a83 456.TP
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457.BI \-y
458Compress every block to be written to the tape using the lzo library.
459This doesn't compress as well as the zlib library but it's much faster.
460This option will work only when dumping to a file or pipe or, when dumping to
461a tape drive, if the tape drive is capable of writing variable length blocks.
462You will need at least the 0.4b34 version of
463.B restore
464in order to extract compressed tapes. Tapes written using compression will not
465be compatible with the BSD tape format.
466.TP
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467.BI \-z "compression level"
468Compress every block to be written on the tape using zlib library. This option
469will work only when dumping to a file or pipe or, when dumping to a tape drive,
470if the tape drive is capable of writing variable length blocks. You will need
471at least the 0.4b22 version of
472.B restore
473in order to extract compressed tapes. Tapes written using compression will not
474be compatible with the BSD tape format. The (optional) parameter specifies the
475compression level zlib will use. The default compression level is 2. If the
476optional parameter is specified, there should be no white space between the
477option letter and the parameter.
478.PP
479.B Dump
480requires operator intervention on these conditions: end of tape, end of dump,
481tape write error, tape open error or disk read error (if there is more than a
482threshold of nr errors). In addition to alerting all operators implied by the
483.B \-n
1227625a 484key,
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485.B dump
486interacts with the operator on dump's control terminal at times when
487.B dump
488can no longer proceed, or if something is grossly wrong. All questions
489.B dump
1227625a 490poses
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491.I must
492be answered by typing \*(lqyes\*(rq or \*(lqno\*(rq, appropriately.
493.PP
1227625a 494Since making a dump involves a lot of time and effort for full dumps,
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495.B dump
496checkpoints itself at the start of each tape volume. If writing that volume
497fails for some reason,
498.B dump
499will, with operator permission, restart itself from the checkpoint after the
500old tape has been rewound and removed, and a new tape has been mounted.
501.PP
502.B Dump
503tells the operator what is going on at periodic intervals, including usually
504low estimates of the number of blocks to write, the number of tapes it will
505take, the time to completion, and the time to the tape change. The output is
506verbose, so that others know that the terminal controlling
507.B dump
508is busy, and will be for some time.
509.PP
510In the event of a catastrophic disk event, the time required to restore all the
511necessary backup tapes or files to disk can be kept to a minimum by staggering
512the incremental dumps. An efficient method of staggering incremental dumps to
513minimize the number of tapes follows:
514.IP \(em
1227625a 515Always start with a level 0 backup, for example:
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516.RS 14
517.B /sbin/dump -0u -f /dev/st0 /usr/src
518.RE
519.IP
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520This should be done at set intervals, say once a month or once every two months,
521and on a set of fresh tapes that is saved forever.
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522.IP \(em
523After a level 0, dumps of active file systems are taken on a daily basis, using
524a modified Tower of Hanoi algorithm, with this sequence of dump levels:
525.RS 14
526.B 3 2 5 4 7 6 9 8 9 9 ...
527.RE
528.IP
529For the daily dumps, it should be possible to use a fixed number of tapes for
530each day, used on a weekly basis. Each week, a level 1 dump is taken, and the
531daily Hanoi sequence repeats beginning with 3. For weekly dumps, another fixed
532set of tapes per dumped file system is used, also on a cyclical basis.
533.PP
534After several months or so, the daily and weekly tapes should get rotated out
535of the dump cycle and fresh tapes brought in.
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536.PP
537(The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility but is not
538documented here.)
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539.SH ENVIRONMENT
540.TP
541.B TAPE
542If no
543.B \-f
544option was specified,
545.B dump
b45f51d6 546will use the device specified via
153f9a83 547.B TAPE
b45f51d6 548as the dump device.
153f9a83 549.B TAPE
b45f51d6 550may be of the form
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551.IR tapename ,
552.IR host:tapename ,
b45f51d6 553or
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554.IR user@host:tapename .
555.TP
556.B RMT
b45f51d6 557The environment variable
153f9a83 558.B RMT
b45f51d6 559will be used to determine the pathname of the remote
153f9a83 560.BR rmt (8)
b45f51d6 561program.
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562.TP
563.B RSH
564.B Dump
565uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the remote shell
566command to use when doing remote backups (rsh, ssh etc.). If this variable is
567not set,
568.BR rcmd (3)
0c62667d 569will be used, but only root will be able to do remote backups.
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570.SH FILES
571.TP
572.I /dev/st0
1227625a 573default tape unit to dump to
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574.TP
575.I __DUMPDATES__
1227625a 576dump date records
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577.TP
578.I /etc/fstab
1227625a 579dump table: file systems and frequency
153f9a83 580.TP
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581.I /etc/mtab
582dump table: mounted file systems
583.TP
153f9a83 584.I /etc/group
1227625a 585to find group
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586.I operator
587.SH SEE ALSO
588.BR fstab (5),
589.BR restore (8),
590.BR rmt (8)
591.SH DIAGNOSTICS
1227625a 592Many, and verbose.
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593.SH COMPATIBILITY
594The format of the
595.I __DUMPDATES__
596file has changed in release 0.4b34, however, the file will be read
597correctly with either pre-0.4b34 or 0.4b34 and later versions of
598.B dump
599provided that the machine on which
600.B dump
601is run did not change timezones (which should be a fairly rare occurence).
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602.SH EXIT STATUS
603.B Dump
604exits with zero status on success. Startup errors are indicated with an exit
605code of 1; abnormal termination is indicated with an exit code of 3.
606.SH BUGS
607It might be considered a bug that this version of dump can only handle ext2/3
ddd2ef55 608filesystems. Specifically, it does not work with FAT filesystems.
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609.PP
610Fewer than 32 read errors (change this with
611.BR \-I )
612on the filesystem are ignored. If noticing read errors is important, the output
613from dump can be parsed to look for lines that contain the text 'read error'.
614.PP
aa1b1e7f 615When a read error occurs,
153f9a83 616.B dump
aa1b1e7f 617prints out the corresponding physical disk block and sector number and the
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618ext2/3 logical block number. It doesn't print out the corresponing file name or
619even the inode number. The user has to use
620.BR debugfs (8),
aa1b1e7f 621commands
153f9a83 622.B ncheck
aa1b1e7f 623and
153f9a83 624.B icheck
aa1b1e7f 625to translate the
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626.B ext2blk
627number printed out by
628.B dump
629into an inode number, then into a file name.
630.PP
631Each reel requires a new process, so parent processes for reels already written
632just hang around until the entire tape is written.
633.PP
e7850aac 634The estimated number of tapes is not correct if compression is on.
153f9a83 635.PP
1227625a 636It would be nice if
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637.B dump
638knew about the dump sequence, kept track of the tapes scribbled on, told the
639operator which tape to mount when, and provided more assistance for the
640operator running
641.BR restore .
642.PP
643.B Dump
644cannot do remote backups without being run as root, due to its security history.
645Presently, it works if you set it setuid (like it used to be), but this might
646constitute a security risk. Note that you can set
647.B RSH
648to use a remote shell program instead.
649.SH AUTHOR
8d4197bb 650The
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651.B dump/restore
652backup suite was ported to Linux's Second Extended File System by Remy Card
653<card@Linux.EU.Org>. He maintained the initial versions of
654.B dump
655(up and including 0.4b4, released in january 1997).
656.PP
657Starting with 0.4b5, the new maintainer is Stelian Pop <stelian@popies.net>.
658.SH AVAILABILITY
8d4197bb 659The
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660.B dump/restore
661backup suite is available from <http://dump.sourceforge.net>
662.SH HISTORY
1227625a 663A
153f9a83 664.B dump
b45f51d6 665command appeared in
153f9a83 666.B Version 6 AT&T UNIX.