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aeb0b047 29.\" $Id: dump.8.in,v 1.62 2009/06/18 09:40:03 stelian Exp $
1227625a 30.\"
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31.TH DUMP 8 "version __VERSION__ of __DATE__" BSD "System management commands"
32.SH NAME
33dump \- ext2/3 filesystem backup
34.SH SYNOPSIS
35.B dump
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36[\fB\-\fIlevel#\fR]
37[\fB\-ackMnqSuv]
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38[\fB\-A \fIfile\fR]
39[\fB\-B \fIrecords\fR]
40[\fB\-b \fIblocksize\fR]
41[\fB\-d \fIdensity\fR]
c92d83ae 42[\fB\-D \fIfile\fR]
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43[\fB\-e \fIinode numbers\fR]
44[\fB\-E \fIfile\fR]
45[\fB\-f \fIfile\fR]
46[\fB\-F \fIscript\fR]
47[\fB\-h \fIlevel\fR]
48[\fB\-I \fInr errors\fR]
49[\fB\-j\fIcompression level\fR]
50[\fB\-L \fIlabel\fR]
51[\fB\-Q \fIfile\fR]
52[\fB\-s \fIfeet\fR]
53[\fB\-T \fIdate\fR]
206f768c 54[\fB\-y\fR]
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55[\fB\-z\fIcompression level\fR]
56.I files-to-dump
57.PP
58.B dump
59[\fB\-W \fR| \fB\-w\fR]
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60.SH DESCRIPTION
61.B Dump
62examines files on an ext2/3 filesystem and determines which files need to be
63backed up. These files are copied to the given disk, tape or other storage
64medium for safe keeping (see the
65.B \-f
66option below for doing remote backups). A dump that is larger than the output
67medium is broken into multiple volumes. On most media the size is determined by
68writing until an end-of-media indication is returned.
69.PP
70On media that cannot reliably return an end-of-media indication (such as some
71cartridge tape drives), each volume is of a fixed size; the actual size is
72determined by specifying cartridge media, or via the tape size, density and/or
73block count options below. By default, the same output file name is used for
74each volume after prompting the operator to change media.
75.PP
76.I files-to-dump
77is either a mountpoint of a filesystem or a list of files and directories to be
78backed up as a subset of a filesystem. In the former case, either the path to a
79mounted filesystem or the device of an unmounted filesystem can be used. In the
80latter case, certain restrictions are placed on the backup:
81.B \-u
a94ecd11 82is not allowed, the only dump level that is supported is
153f9a83 83.B 0
a94ecd11 84and all the files and directories must reside on the same filesystem.
153f9a83 85.SH OPTIONS
1227625a 86The following options are supported by
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87.B dump:
88.TP
28ba5cae 89.BI \-level#
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90The dump level (any integer). A level 0, full backup, specified by
91.B \-0
92guarantees the entire file system is copied (but see also the
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93.B \-h
94option below). A level number above 0, incremental backup, tells
95.B dump
ddd2ef55 96to
153f9a83 97copy all files new or modified since the last dump of a lower level. The
f39dae99 98default level is 0. Historically only levels 0 to 9 were usable in
28ba5cae 99dump, this version is able to understand any integer as a dump level.
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100.TP
101.BI \-a
102\*(lqauto-size\*(rq. Bypass all tape length calculations, and write until an
103end-of-media indication is returned. This works best for most modern tape
104drives, and is the default. Use of this option is particularly recommended when
105appending to an existing tape, or using a tape drive with hardware compression
4f4eee3d 106(where you can never be sure about the compression ratio).
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107.TP
108.BI \-A " archive_file"
109Archive a dump table-of-contents in the specified
110.I archive_file
e51470bf 111to be used by
153f9a83 112.BR restore (8)
e51470bf 113to determine whether a file is in the dump file that is being restored.
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114.TP
115.BI \-b " blocksize"
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116The number of kilobytes per dump record. The default blocksize is 10,
117unless the
118.B \-d
119option has been used to specify a tape density of 6250BPI or more,
120in which case the default blocksize is 32. Th maximal value is 1024.
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121Note however that, since the IO system slices all requests into chunks
122of
153f9a83 123.B MAXBSIZE
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124(which can be as low as 64kB), you can experience problems with
125.BR dump (8)
126and
127.BR restore (8)
128when using a higher value, depending on your kernel and/or libC versions.
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129.TP
130.BI \-B " records"
27305a35 131The number of 1 kB blocks per volume. Not normally required, as
153f9a83 132.B dump
27305a35 133can detect end-of-media. When the specified size is reached,
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134.B dump
135waits for you to change the volume. This option overrides the calculation of
136tape size based on length and density. If compression is on this limits the
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137size of the compressed output per volume. Multiple values may be given
138as a single argument separated by commas. Each value will be used for one
139dump volume in the order listed; if
140.B dump
141creates more volumes than the
142number of values given, the last value will be used for the remaining
143volumes. This is useful for filling up already partially filled media
144(and then continuing with full size volumes on empty media) or mixing media
145of different sizes.
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146.TP
147.BI \-c
148Change the defaults for use with a cartridge tape drive, with a density of 8000
149bpi, and a length of 1700 feet. Specifying a cartridge drive overrides the
e51470bf 150end-of-media detection.
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151.TP
152.BI \-d " density"
153Set tape density to
154.IR density .
155The default is 1600BPI. Specifying a tape density overrides the end-of-media
156detection.
157.TP
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158.BI \-D " file"
159Set the path name of the file storing the information about the previous
160full and incremental dumps. The default location is
161.IR __DUMPDATES__ .
162.TP
153f9a83 163.BI \-e " inodes"
20c345aa 164Exclude
153f9a83 165.I inodes
6d732772 166from the dump. The
153f9a83 167.I inodes
6d732772 168parameter is a comma separated list of inode numbers (you can use
153f9a83 169.BR stat (1)
20c345aa 170to find the inode number for a file or directory).
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171.TP
172.BI \-E " file"
6d732772 173Read list of inodes to be excluded from the dump from the text file
153f9a83 174.IR file .
6d732772 175The file
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176.I file
177should be an ordinary file containing inode numbers separated by newlines.
178.TP
179.BI \-f " file"
1227625a 180Write the backup to
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181.IR file ;
182.I file
183may be a special device file like
184.I /dev/st0
1227625a 185(a tape drive),
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186.I /dev/rsd1c
187(a floppy disk drive), an ordinary file, or
188.I \-
189(the standard output). Multiple file names may be given as a single argument
190separated by commas. Each file will be used for one dump volume in the order
191listed; if the dump requires more volumes than the number of names given,
192the last file name will used for all remaining volumes after prompting for
193media changes. If the name of the file is of the form
194.I host:file
1227625a 195or
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196.I user@host:file
197.B dump
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198writes to the named file on the remote host (which should already
199exist, dump doesn't create a new remote file) using
153f9a83 200.BR rmt (8).
b45f51d6 201The default path name of the remote
153f9a83 202.BR rmt (8)
b45f51d6 203program is
153f9a83 204.IR /etc/rmt ;
b45f51d6 205this can be overridden by the environment variable
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206.BR RMT .
207.TP
208.BI \-F " script"
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209Run script at the end of each tape (except for the last one).
210The device name and the current volume number are passed on the
211command line. The script must return 0 if
153f9a83 212.B dump
ae81b200 213should continue without asking the user to change the tape, 1 if
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214.B dump
215should continue but ask the user to change the tape. Any other exit code will
216cause
217.B dump
218to abort. For security reasons,
219.B dump
220reverts back to the real user ID and the real group ID before running the
221script.
222.TP
223.BI \-h " level"
e51470bf 224Honor the user
153f9a83 225.B nodump
e51470bf 226flag
153f9a83 227.B UF_NODUMP
e51470bf 228only for dumps at or above the given
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229.IR level .
230The default honor level is 1, so that incremental backups omit such files but
231full backups retain them.
232.TP
233.BI \-I " nr errors"
b82d31dc 234By default,
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235.B dump
236will ignore the first 32 read errors on the file system before asking for
237operator intervention. You can change this using this flag to any value. This
238is useful when running
239.B dump
240on an active filesystem where read errors simply indicate an inconsistency
241between the mapping and dumping passes.
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242.IP
243A value of 0 means that all read errors will be ignored.
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244.TP
245.BI \-j "compression level"
246Compress every block to be written on the tape using bzlib library. This option
247will work only when dumping to a file or pipe or, when dumping to a tape drive,
248if the tape drive is capable of writing variable length blocks. You will need
249at least the 0.4b24 version of
250.B restore
251in order to extract compressed tapes. Tapes written using compression will not
252be compatible with the BSD tape format. The (optional) parameter specifies the
253compression level bzlib will use. The default compression level is 2. If the
254optional parameter is specified, there should be no white space between the
255option letter and the parameter.
256.TP
257.BI \-k
258Use Kerberos authentication to talk to remote tape servers. (Only available if
259this option was enabled when
260.B dump
b45f51d6 261was compiled.)
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262.TP
263.BI \-L " label"
b45f51d6 264The user-supplied text string
153f9a83 265.I label
b45f51d6 266is placed into the dump header, where tools like
153f9a83 267.BR restore (8)
b45f51d6 268and
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269.BR file (8)
270can access it. Note that this label is limited to be at most
271.B LBLSIZE
272(currently 16) characters, which must include the terminating \e0.
273.TP
274.BI \-m
0cedbda5 275If this flag is specified,
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276.B dump
277will optimise the output for inodes having been changed but not modified since
278the last dump ('changed' and 'modified' have the meaning defined in
279.BR stat (2)
280). For those inodes,
281.B dump
282will save only the metadata, instead of saving the entire inode contents.
283Inodes which are either directories or have been modified since the last dump
284are saved in a regular way. Uses of this flag must be consistent, meaning that
285either every dump in an incremental dump set have the flag, or no one has it.
286.IP
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287If you use this option, be aware that many programs that unpack
288files from archives (e.g. tar, rpm, unzip, dpkg) may set files'
289mtimes to dates in the past. Files installed in this way may not be
290dumped correctly using "dump -m" if the modified mtime is earlier
291than the previous level dump.
292.IP
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293Tapes written using such 'metadata only' inodes will not be compatible with the
294BSD tape format or older versions of
295.B restore.
296.TP
297.BI \-M
dc7cb1e2 298Enable the multi-volume feature. The name specified with
153f9a83 299.B f
dc7cb1e2 300is treated as a prefix and
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301.B dump
302writes in sequence to
303.I <prefix>001, <prefix>002
304etc. This can be useful when dumping to files on an ext2 partition, in order to
305bypass the 2GB file size limitation.
306.TP
307.BI \-n
1227625a 308Whenever
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309.B dump
310requires operator attention, notify all operators in the group
311.B operator
1227625a 312by means similar to a
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313.BR wall (1).
314.TP
315.BI \-q
e084ba00 316Make
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317.B dump
318abort immediately whenever operator attention is required, without prompting in
319case of write errors, tape changes etc.
320.TP
321.BI \-Q " file"
322Enable the Quick File Access support. Tape positions for each inode are stored
323into the file
324.I file
325which is used by
326.B restore
327(if called with parameter
328.B \-Q
329and the filename) to directly position the tape at the file
330.B restore
331is currently working on. This saves hours when restoring single files from
332large backups, saves the tapes and the drive's head.
333.IP
334It is recommended to set up the st driver to return logical tape positions
335rather than physical before calling
336.B dump/restore
337with parameter
338.BR \-Q .
339Since not all tape devices support physical tape positions those tape devices
340return an error during
341.B dump/restore
342when the st driver is set to the default physical setting. Please see the
343.BR st (4)
344man page, option
345.B MTSETDRVBUFFER
346, or the
347.BR mt (1)
348man page, on how to set the driver to return logical tape positions.
349.IP
350Before calling
351.B restore
352with parameter
353.BR \-Q ,
354always make sure the st driver is set to return the same type of tape position
355used during the call to
356.BR dump .
357Otherwise
358.B restore
359may be confused.
360.IP
361This option can be used when dumping to local tapes (see above) or to local
362files.
363.TP
364.BI \-s " feet"
365Attempt to calculate the amount of tape needed at a particular density. If this
366amount is exceeded,
367.B dump
368prompts for a new tape. It is recommended to be a bit conservative on this
369option. The default tape length is 2300 feet. Specifying the tape size
4f4eee3d 370overrides end-of-media detection.
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371.TP
372.BI \-S
373Size estimate. Determine the amount of space that is needed to perform the dump
374without actually doing it, and display the estimated number of bytes it will
375take. This is useful with incremental dumps to determine how many volumes of
376media will be needed.
377.TP
378.BI \-T " date"
379Use the specified date as the starting time for the dump instead of the time
380determined from looking in
381.I __DUMPDATES__ .
ddd2ef55 382The format of
153f9a83 383.I date
ddd2ef55 384is the same as that of
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385.BR ctime (3)
386followed by an rfc822 timezone specification: either a plus or minus sign
387followed by two digits for the number of hours and two digits for the minutes.
388For example, -0800 for eight hours west of Greenwich or +0230 for two hours
389and a half east of Greenwich. This timezone offset takes into account
390daylight savings time (if applicable to the timezone): UTC offsets
391when daylight savings time is in effect will be different than offsets
392when daylight savings time is not in effect. For backward
393compatibility, if no timezone is specified, a local time is assumed.
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394This option is useful for automated dump scripts that wish to dump over a
395specific period of time. The
396.B \-T
1227625a 397option is mutually exclusive from the
153f9a83 398.B \-u
1227625a 399option.
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400.TP
401.BI \-u
1227625a 402Update the file
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403.I __DUMPDATES__
404after a successful dump. The format of
405.I __DUMPDATES__
406is readable by people, consisting of one free format record per line:
407filesystem name, increment level and
408.BR ctime (3)
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409format dump date followed by a rfc822 timezone specification (see the
410.B \-u
411option for details). If no timezone offset is specified, times are interpreted
412as local. Whenever the file is written, all dates in the file are converted
413to the local time zone, without changing the UTC times. There
414may be only one entry per filesystem at each level. The file
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415.I __DUMPDATES__
416may be edited to change any of the fields, if necessary.
417.TP
418.BI \-v
fceb4f25 419The
153f9a83 420.B \-v
fceb4f25 421(verbose) makes
153f9a83 422.B dump
fceb4f25 423to print extra information which could be helpful in debug sessions.
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424.TP
425.BI \-W
426.B Dump
427tells the operator what file systems need to be dumped. This information is
428gleaned from the files
429.I __DUMPDATES__
1227625a 430and
153f9a83 431.IR /etc/fstab .
1227625a 432The
153f9a83 433.B \-W
1227625a 434option causes
153f9a83 435.B dump
51b01afe 436to print out, for all file systems in
153f9a83 437.I __DUMPDATES__ ,
aeb0b047 438and recognized file systems in
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439.I /etc/mtab
440and
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441.IR /etc/fstab .
442the most recent dump date and level, and highlights those that should be
443dumped. If the
444.B \-W
1227625a 445option is set, all other options are ignored, and
153f9a83 446.B dump
1227625a 447exits immediately.
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448.TP
449.BI \-w
ddd2ef55 450Is like
153f9a83 451.BR \-W ,
51b01afe 452but prints only recognized filesystems in
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453.I /etc/mtab
454and
153f9a83 455.I /etc/fstab
51b01afe 456which need to be dumped.
153f9a83 457.TP
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458.BI \-y
459Compress every block to be written to the tape using the lzo library.
460This doesn't compress as well as the zlib library but it's much faster.
461This option will work only when dumping to a file or pipe or, when dumping to
462a tape drive, if the tape drive is capable of writing variable length blocks.
463You will need at least the 0.4b34 version of
464.B restore
465in order to extract compressed tapes. Tapes written using compression will not
466be compatible with the BSD tape format.
467.TP
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468.BI \-z "compression level"
469Compress every block to be written on the tape using zlib library. This option
470will work only when dumping to a file or pipe or, when dumping to a tape drive,
471if the tape drive is capable of writing variable length blocks. You will need
472at least the 0.4b22 version of
473.B restore
474in order to extract compressed tapes. Tapes written using compression will not
475be compatible with the BSD tape format. The (optional) parameter specifies the
476compression level zlib will use. The default compression level is 2. If the
477optional parameter is specified, there should be no white space between the
478option letter and the parameter.
479.PP
480.B Dump
481requires operator intervention on these conditions: end of tape, end of dump,
482tape write error, tape open error or disk read error (if there is more than a
483threshold of nr errors). In addition to alerting all operators implied by the
484.B \-n
1227625a 485key,
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486.B dump
487interacts with the operator on dump's control terminal at times when
488.B dump
489can no longer proceed, or if something is grossly wrong. All questions
490.B dump
1227625a 491poses
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492.I must
493be answered by typing \*(lqyes\*(rq or \*(lqno\*(rq, appropriately.
494.PP
1227625a 495Since making a dump involves a lot of time and effort for full dumps,
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496.B dump
497checkpoints itself at the start of each tape volume. If writing that volume
498fails for some reason,
499.B dump
500will, with operator permission, restart itself from the checkpoint after the
501old tape has been rewound and removed, and a new tape has been mounted.
502.PP
503.B Dump
504tells the operator what is going on at periodic intervals, including usually
505low estimates of the number of blocks to write, the number of tapes it will
506take, the time to completion, and the time to the tape change. The output is
507verbose, so that others know that the terminal controlling
508.B dump
509is busy, and will be for some time.
510.PP
511In the event of a catastrophic disk event, the time required to restore all the
512necessary backup tapes or files to disk can be kept to a minimum by staggering
513the incremental dumps. An efficient method of staggering incremental dumps to
514minimize the number of tapes follows:
515.IP \(em
1227625a 516Always start with a level 0 backup, for example:
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517.RS 14
518.B /sbin/dump -0u -f /dev/st0 /usr/src
519.RE
520.IP
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521This should be done at set intervals, say once a month or once every two months,
522and on a set of fresh tapes that is saved forever.
153f9a83 523.IP \(em
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524After a level 0, dumps of active file systems are taken on a daily basis,
525with this sequence of dump levels:
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526.RS 14
527.B 3 2 5 4 7 6 9 8 9 9 ...
528.RE
529.IP
530For the daily dumps, it should be possible to use a fixed number of tapes for
531each day, used on a weekly basis. Each week, a level 1 dump is taken, and the
532daily Hanoi sequence repeats beginning with 3. For weekly dumps, another fixed
533set of tapes per dumped file system is used, also on a cyclical basis.
534.PP
535After several months or so, the daily and weekly tapes should get rotated out
536of the dump cycle and fresh tapes brought in.
b79d20f1 537.PP
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538Another backup strategy is the Tower of Hanoi sequence, which reuses
539older tapes in a way that for newer dates the available restore points
540are more frequent, then for older dates (see
541http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backup_rotation_scheme for additional
542information).
543.PP
b79d20f1
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544(The 4.3BSD option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility but is not
545documented here.)
153f9a83
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546.SH ENVIRONMENT
547.TP
548.B TAPE
549If no
550.B \-f
551option was specified,
552.B dump
b45f51d6 553will use the device specified via
153f9a83 554.B TAPE
b45f51d6 555as the dump device.
153f9a83 556.B TAPE
b45f51d6 557may be of the form
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558.IR tapename ,
559.IR host:tapename ,
b45f51d6 560or
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561.IR user@host:tapename .
562.TP
563.B RMT
b45f51d6 564The environment variable
153f9a83 565.B RMT
b45f51d6 566will be used to determine the pathname of the remote
153f9a83 567.BR rmt (8)
b45f51d6 568program.
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569.TP
570.B RSH
571.B Dump
572uses the contents of this variable to determine the name of the remote shell
573command to use when doing remote backups (rsh, ssh etc.). If this variable is
574not set,
575.BR rcmd (3)
0c62667d 576will be used, but only root will be able to do remote backups.
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577.SH FILES
578.TP
579.I /dev/st0
1227625a 580default tape unit to dump to
153f9a83
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581.TP
582.I __DUMPDATES__
1227625a 583dump date records
153f9a83
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584.TP
585.I /etc/fstab
1227625a 586dump table: file systems and frequency
153f9a83 587.TP
a8a6a503
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588.I /etc/mtab
589dump table: mounted file systems
590.TP
153f9a83 591.I /etc/group
1227625a 592to find group
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593.I operator
594.SH SEE ALSO
595.BR fstab (5),
596.BR restore (8),
597.BR rmt (8)
598.SH DIAGNOSTICS
1227625a 599Many, and verbose.
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600.SH COMPATIBILITY
601The format of the
602.I __DUMPDATES__
603file has changed in release 0.4b34, however, the file will be read
604correctly with either pre-0.4b34 or 0.4b34 and later versions of
605.B dump
606provided that the machine on which
607.B dump
aeb0b047 608is run did not change timezones (which should be a fairly rare occurrence).
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609.SH EXIT STATUS
610.B Dump
611exits with zero status on success. Startup errors are indicated with an exit
612code of 1; abnormal termination is indicated with an exit code of 3.
613.SH BUGS
614It might be considered a bug that this version of dump can only handle ext2/3
ddd2ef55 615filesystems. Specifically, it does not work with FAT filesystems.
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616.PP
617Fewer than 32 read errors (change this with
618.BR \-I )
619on the filesystem are ignored. If noticing read errors is important, the output
620from dump can be parsed to look for lines that contain the text 'read error'.
621.PP
aa1b1e7f 622When a read error occurs,
153f9a83 623.B dump
aa1b1e7f 624prints out the corresponding physical disk block and sector number and the
aeb0b047 625ext2/3 logical block number. It doesn't print out the corresponding file name or
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626even the inode number. The user has to use
627.BR debugfs (8),
aa1b1e7f 628commands
153f9a83 629.B ncheck
aa1b1e7f 630and
153f9a83 631.B icheck
aa1b1e7f 632to translate the
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633.B ext2blk
634number printed out by
635.B dump
636into an inode number, then into a file name.
637.PP
638Each reel requires a new process, so parent processes for reels already written
639just hang around until the entire tape is written.
640.PP
e7850aac 641The estimated number of tapes is not correct if compression is on.
153f9a83 642.PP
1227625a 643It would be nice if
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644.B dump
645knew about the dump sequence, kept track of the tapes scribbled on, told the
646operator which tape to mount when, and provided more assistance for the
647operator running
648.BR restore .
649.PP
650.B Dump
651cannot do remote backups without being run as root, due to its security history.
652Presently, it works if you set it setuid (like it used to be), but this might
653constitute a security risk. Note that you can set
654.B RSH
655to use a remote shell program instead.
656.SH AUTHOR
8d4197bb 657The
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658.B dump/restore
659backup suite was ported to Linux's Second Extended File System by Remy Card
660<card@Linux.EU.Org>. He maintained the initial versions of
661.B dump
aeb0b047 662(up and including 0.4b4, released in January 1997).
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663.PP
664Starting with 0.4b5, the new maintainer is Stelian Pop <stelian@popies.net>.
665.SH AVAILABILITY
8d4197bb 666The
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667.B dump/restore
668backup suite is available from <http://dump.sourceforge.net>
669.SH HISTORY
1227625a 670A
153f9a83 671.B dump
b45f51d6 672command appeared in
153f9a83 673.B Version 6 AT&T UNIX.